18 abr What Was the Paris Agreement about
Yes, there is a broad consensus in the scientific community, although some deny that climate change is a problem, including politicians in the United States. When negotiating teams come together for international climate negotiations, there is “less skepticism about science and more disagreement about how to set priorities,” says David Victor, a professor of international relations at the University of California, San Diego. The basic science is this: The United States, the world`s second-largest emitter, is the only country to have withdrawn from the deal, a move by President Donald J. Trump that went into effect in November 2020. Other countries that have not officially approved the deal include Angola, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Libya, South Sudan, Turkey and Yemen. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must regularly identify, plan and report on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism requiring a country to set a specific emission target on a specific date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States officially withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the agreement after his inauguration.  Although the long-term sustained temperatures addressed by the agreement are about 1.3°C (2.3°F) above the 1880 average at the beginning of global records.  Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) only for developed countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to do their part and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.
To this end, greater flexibility is built into the Paris Agreement: it does not include language in the commitments that countries should make, countries can voluntarily set their emission targets (NDCs) and countries are not penalized if they do not meet the proposed targets. What the Paris Agreement requires, however, is monitoring, reporting, and reassessing countries` individual and collective goals over time in order to bring the world closer to the broader goals of the agreement. And the agreement stipulates that countries must announce their next set of targets every five years – unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which aimed at that target but did not contain a specific requirement to achieve it. According to Ivanova, who studies the impact of these agreements, these types of agreements work because they benefit countries in the long run. For example, if a country meets its wetland repair targets under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, it will be rewarded with improved quality of life, water availability, electricity supply and flood protection. As a result, countries see these benefits and work harder to achieve their goals. Adaptation issues were further emphasized in the drafting of the Paris Agreement. But the deal introduced a robust reporting process so the world knows whether a country has succeeded or failed — a system that architects hope will foster a culture of ambition in which countries increase their goals as green technologies improve and become cheaper, The Politic reported. Previous commitments could raise global temperatures by up to 2.7°C, but the agreement sets out a roadmap to accelerate progress. The president`s promise to renegotiate the international climate agreement has always been a smog screen, the oil industry has a red phone inside, and will Trump bring food trucks to Old Faithful? The agreement follows several previous attempts to take global climate action. For example, the 1997 Kyoto Protocol required 37 industrialized countries to reduce their emissions by an average of 5% compared to 1990 levels. Unlike previous efforts, the Paris Agreement does not prescribe different levels of action for countries based on their level of development, nor does it require all countries to reduce their emissions by a certain standard amount.
As of November 2020, 194 states and the European Union had signed the agreement. 187 countries and the EU, which account for about 79% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have ratified or acceded to the Convention, including China and India, the countries with the 1st and 3rd largest CO2 emissions among UNFCCC members.    As of November 2020[update], the United States, Iran and Turkey are the only countries with a share of more than 1% of global emissions that are not contracting parties. The desire for a more ambitious goal was maintained in the deal – with the promise to further limit global temperatures to 1.5°C. It is rare that there is consensus among almost all nations on a single issue. But with the Paris Agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change is driven by human behavior, that it poses a threat to the environment and all of humanity, and that global action is needed to stop it. A clear framework has also been put in place for all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some key reasons why the agreement is so important: Since the Paris Agreement has no impact, it lacks accountability. Many political experts and climate activists have argued that the Paris Agreement does not have the teeth to ensure that countries meet their goals and thus mitigate the worst effects of climate change, according to a criticism of the agreement published in 2017 in the journal Climate Policy. President Obama was able to formally include the United States in the international agreement through executive action, as he did not impose any new legal obligations on the country. The U.S. already has a number of tools on its books, under laws already passed by Congress to reduce carbon pollution.
The country formally acceded to the agreement in September 2016 after submitting its proposal for participation. The Paris Agreement could not enter into force until at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had officially acceded to it. This happened on October 5, 2016 and the agreement entered into force 30 days later, on November 4, 2016. The Paris Agreement has a “bottom-up” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top-down” and are characterized by internationally defined norms and goals that must be implemented by states.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets with the force of law, the Paris Agreement, which emphasizes consensus-building, allows for voluntary, nationally defined targets.  Specific climate goals are therefore promoted politically and are not legally linked. .